Vitamins, Minerals and Dietary Supplements
What is lycopene? Why do we need it?
Lycopene is a substance belonging to the carotenid family.
Carotenes are a brightly colored group of fat-soluble plant
pigments that exhibit antioxidant properties, which help fight
cellular damage in humans. Lycopene is red, which helps give
tomatoes their distinctive color.
Several studies have shown lycopene to be effective in fighting
certain forms of cancer. A 1995 study by researchers at Harvard
University found that men who consumed greater amounts of
lycopene had a much lesser chance of developing prostate cancer
than those who consumed lesser amounts. Other preliminary
studies have found that lycopene may offer protection against
cancers of the pancreas, colon, rectum, esophagus, oral cavity,
breast and cervix. In Europe, researchers have found a link
between lycopene intake and a reduced risk of cardiovascular
disease. Lycopene supplements have also improved immune function
in the elderly.
How much lycopene should I take?
While the Food and Drug Administration has yet to devise
a recommended daily allowance for lycopene, the Harvard study
showed that men who had the greatest protection against cancer
consumed at least 6.5mg per day (or ate at least 10 servings
of tomato-based foods per week).
What are some good sources of lycopene? What forms are available?
Tomatoes and tomato-based foods (such as tomato paste, tomato
soup, tomato juice and pasta sauce) are the best sources of
lycopene. Other foods that contain lycopene are watermelon,
pink grapefruit and guava. Lycopene supplements are also available
in capsule and tablet form.
What can happen if I dont get enough lycopene? What can happen if I take too much?
Are there any side-effects I should be aware of?
To date, no studies have been conducted regarding lycopene
deficiency or overdose. At the time of this writing, no adverse
effects have been reported concerning the use of lycopene,
and no evidence of any drug interactions with lycopene has
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Morrissey PA. Carotenoids and immune response in elderly people.
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- Deneo H-Pellegrini H, De
Stefani E, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M. Foods, nutrients and prostate
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- Giovannucci E, Ascherio
A, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation
to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:176776.
- Kanetsky PA, Gammon MD,
Mandelblatt J, et al. Dietary intake and blood levels of lycopene:
association with cervical dysplasia among non-hispanic, black
women. Nutr Cancer 1998;31:3140.
- Paetau I, Khachik F, Brown ED, et al. Chronic ingestion of lycopene-rich
tomato juice or lycopene supplements significantly increases
plasma concentrations of lycopene and related tomato carotenoids
in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:118795.